Low Damage Scalable Pulsed Laser Deposition of SnO2 for p–i–n Perovskite Solar Cells

Wiria Soltanpoor (Corresponding author), Andrea E.A. Bracesco, Nathan Rodkey, Mariadriana Creatore, Monica Morales-Masis (Corresponding author)

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Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has already been adopted as a low damage deposition technique of transparent conducting oxides on top of sensitive organic charge transport layers in optoelectronic devices. Herein, SnO2 deposition is demonstrated as buffer layer in p–i–n perovskite solar cells (PSCs) via wafer-scale (4 inch) PLD at room temperature. The PLD SnO2 properties, its interface with perovskite/C60, and device performance are compared to atomic layer deposited (ALD) SnO2, i.e., state-of-the-art buffer layer in perovskite-based single junction and tandem photovoltaics. The PLD SnO2-based solar cells exhibit on par efficiencies (17.8%) with that of SnO2 fabricated using ALD. The solvent-free room temperature processing and wafer-scale approach of PLD open up possibilities for buffer layer formation with increased deposition rates while mitigating potential thermal or physical damage to the top organic layers. This is a promising outlook for fully physical vapor-processed halide PSCs and optoelectronic devices requiring low thermal budget.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2300616
Number of pages7
JournalSolar RRL
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


W.S. and A.B. contributed equally to this work. W.S. and M.M.M. acknowledge the funding by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (CREATE, Grant Agreement No. 852722). A.E.A.B. and M.C. thank Cristian A. A. van Helvoirt, Caspar O. van Bommel, and Janneke J. A. Zeebregts for their technical support. A.E.A.B. acknowledges funding from the NWO Joint Solar Program III (JSP3). M.C. acknowledges the NWO Aspasia Program. The authors thank Klaas Bakker and TNO (partner in Solliance, Eindhoven) for the technical support, and access to their facilities, while performing the and EQE measurements. A.E.A.B. and M.C. also thank Sjoerd Veenstra and Valerio Zardetto, TNO (partner in Solliance, Eindhoven) for initial discussions. The authors thank Denise Kreugel from Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) for preliminary investigations. J–V

FundersFunder number
IIP Create - ICT Innovatie Platform Create852722
European Research Council
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Horizon 2020


    • atomic layer deposition
    • buffer layers
    • low damage
    • perovskite solar cells
    • pulsed laser deposition
    • room temperature processing
    • SnO


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