Load-following reserves procurement considering flexible demand-side resources under high wind power penetration

N.G. Paterakis, O. Erdinc, A.G. Bakirtzis, J.P.S. Catalao

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37 Citations (Scopus)
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The variable and uncertain nature of the leading renewable energy resources, such as wind power generation, imposes the development of a sophisticated balance mechanism between supply and demand to maintain the consistency of a power system. In this study, a two stage stochastic programming model is proposed to procure the required load-following reserves from both generation and demand side resources under high wind power penetration. Besides, a novel load model is introduced to procure flexible reserves from industrial clients. Load following reserves from load serving entities (LSE) are also taken into account as well as network constraints, load shedding and wind spillage. The proposed methodology is applied to an illustrative test system, as well as to a 24-node system.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1337-1350
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Demand response
  • flexible load
  • load-following reserves
  • stochastic programming
  • wind power

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