Light exposure behaviour assessment (leba): a novel self-reported instrument to capture light exposure-related behaviour

Mushfiqul Anwar Siraji, Rafael Robert Lazar, Juliëtte van Duijnhoven, Luc Schlangen, Shamsul Haque, Vineetha Kalavally, Céline Vetter, Gena Glickman, Karin Smolders, Manuel Spitschan

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Light exposure is an important driver of health and well-being. Many aspects of light exposure are modulated by our behaviour. How these light-related behaviours can be shaped to optimise personal light exposure is currently unknown. Here, we present a novel, self-reported and psychometrically validated instrument to capture light exposure-related behaviour, the Light Exposure Behavior Assessment (LEBA).
An expert panel prepared the initial 48 item pool. Responses to these items were then collected in an online survey producing responses from an international sample (690 completed responses, 74 countries, 28 time zones). Exploratory factor analysis on an initial subset of our sample (n=428) rendered a five-factor solution with 25 items (Wearing blue light filters, spending time outdoors, using phone and smart-watch in bed, using light before bedtime, using light in the morning and during daytime). Confirmatory factor analysis on another subset of participants (n=262) yielded the best fit for the five-factor solution after discarding another two items (CFI=0.97, TLI=0.96, RMSEA=0.05, SRMR=0.09). The internal consistency reliability coefficient for the total instrument was McDonald’s omega_t=0.73. Measurement model invariance analysis between native and non-native English speakers showed our model attained the highest level of invariance (residual invariance; CFI=0.95, TLI =0.95, RMSEA=0.05). Lastly, a short form of LEBA (n=18) was developed using Item Response Theory on the complete sample (n=690).
The psychometric properties of the LEBA instrument indicate the usability to measure the light exposure-related behaviours across a variety of settings and may offer a scalable solution to characterise light exposure-related behaviours in remote samples. The LEBA instrument will be available under the open-access CC-BY-NC-ND license.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCIE Australia Lighting Research Conference 2022
Subtitle of host publicationConference Programme
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2022
EventCIE Australia Lighting Research Conference 2022 - Online, Sydney, Australia
Duration: 8 Feb 20228 Feb 2022


ConferenceCIE Australia Lighting Research Conference 2022
OtherOriginally the conference was planned to be at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, but was changed to online only due to uncertainty surrounding the omicron COVID-19 variant and rising cases in NSW.
Internet address


  • light exposure
  • light-related behaviour
  • non-visual effects of light
  • psychometrics


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