Large scale testing of digitally fabricated concrete (DFC) elements

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Case study projects based on Digitally Fabricated Concrete (DFC) are presented in an increasing pace around the globe. Generally, though, it is not reported what structural requirements (if any) these structures meet and how compliance to these requirements was established. Published material research is often not connected to the presented case studies, and even when it is, it is not necessarily obvious their small scale results can be applied to full scale structures as some scale effects should be anticipated. Caution is required as DFC related material tests are still under development and scale effects in DFC have hardly been studied. Therefore, it is recommendable to perform large scale testing, in the range of 1:5 to 1:1, if DFC is applied to actual use structures. This paper presents such testing for two projects, a pavilion in Denmark (not realized) and a bridge in the Netherlands (realized). In both cases, elements printed with the 3D Concrete Printing facility of the Eindhoven University of Technology were intended for actual load bearing performance. The conservative designs past the test requirements, but nevertheless some important findings with regard to element manufacturing and structural behaviour were experienced. It is concluded that large scale testing remains advisable for DFC structures as long as not all relevant aspects of the technology are quantitatively understood, at least when new concepts are being applied.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFirst RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018
EditorsT. Wangler, R.J. Flatt
Place of PublicationBerlin
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-99519-9
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-99518-2
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2018
EventDigital Concrete 2018: 1st RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication - ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Duration: 10 Sep 201812 Sep 2018

Publication series

NameRILEM Bookseries
ISSN (Print)2211-0844
ISSN (Electronic)2211-0852


ConferenceDigital Concrete 2018


  • 3D Concrete Printing (3DCP)
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Experimental testing
  • Scale effect


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