Large-area all-printed temperature sensing surfaces using novel composite thermistor materials

Dimitra Katerinopoulou, Peter Zalar (Corresponding author), Jorgen Sweelssen, George Kiriakidis, Corné Rentrop, Pim Groen, Gerwin H. Gelinck, Jeroen van den Brand, Edsger C.P. Smits (Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


Surfaces which can accurately distinguish spatial and temporal changes in temperature are critical for not only flow sensors, microbolometers, process control, but also future applications like electronic skins and soft robotics. Realizing such surfaces requires the deposition of thousands of thermal sensors over large areas, a task ideally suited for printing technologies. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) ceramics represent the industry standard in temperature sensing due to their high thermal coefficient and excellent stability. A drawback is their complex and high temperature fabrication process and high stiffness, prohibiting their monolithic integration in large area or flexible applications. As a remedy, a printable NTC composite that combines a rapid and scalable all-printed fabrication process with performances that are on par with conventional NTC ceramics is demonstrated. The composite consists of micrometer-sized manganese spinel oxide particles dispersed in a benzocyclobutene matrix. The sensor has a B coefficient of 3500 K, with a 4.0% change in resistance at 25 °C, comparable to bulk ceramics. The selected polymer binder yields a composite exhibiting less than a 1 °C change in resistance to changes in humidity. The sensor's scalability is validated by demonstration of a A4-sized temperature sensing sheet consisting of over 400 sensors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1800605
Number of pages7
JournalAdvanced Electronic Materials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


  • ceramics
  • organic–inorganic composites
  • printed electronics
  • temperature sensors


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