## Abstract

We report heat transfer and temperature prole measurements in laboratory experiments of rapidly rotating convection in water under intense thermal forcing (Rayleigh number Ra as high as ~10

uence (Ekman numbers E as low as 10

phenomenologies. Past the limit of validity of the asymptotically-reduced models, we find novel behaviors in a regime we refer to as rotationally-influenced turbulence, where rotation is important but not as dominant as in the known geostrophic turbulence regime. The temperature gradients collapse to a Rayleigh-number scaling as Ra

by a critical convective Rossby number Ro

^{13}) and unprecedentedly strong rotational inuence (Ekman numbers E as low as 10

^{-8}). Measurements of the mid-height vertical temperature gradient connect quantitatively to predictions from numerical models of asymptotically rapidly rotating convection, separating various flowphenomenologies. Past the limit of validity of the asymptotically-reduced models, we find novel behaviors in a regime we refer to as rotationally-influenced turbulence, where rotation is important but not as dominant as in the known geostrophic turbulence regime. The temperature gradients collapse to a Rayleigh-number scaling as Ra

^{-0.2}in this new regime. It is bounded from aboveby a critical convective Rossby number Ro

^{*}= 0.06 independent of domain aspect ratio Γ, clearly distinguishing it from well-studied rotation-affected convection.Original language | English |
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Journal | Physical Review Fluids |

Publication status | Accepted/In press - 2020 |