Kidney Exchange Program Reporting Standards: Evidence-Based Consensus From Europe

Bart M.L. Smeulders (Corresponding author), Michal Mankowski, Joris van de Klundert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Kidney Exchange Programs can play an important role to increase access to the life saving and most cost-effective treatment for
End Stage Renal Disease. The rise of national KEPs in Europe brings a need for standardized performance reporting to facilitate
the development of an international evidence base on program practices.

We systematically searched and reviewed the literature to extract kidney exchange program performance measures. Reported
measures were initially categorized as structure, process, and outcome measures. Expert feedback was used to redefine
categories and extend the set of measures to be considered. Using the Delphi method and a panel of ten experts, the resulting
measures were subsequently classified as mandatory (Base set), optional (Extended set), or deleted.

Out of the initial 1668 articles identified by systematic literature search, 21 European publications on kidney exchange programs
were included to collect performance measures, accompanied by three national program reports. The final measurement
categories were Context, Population, Enrollment, Matching, Transplantation, and Outcomes. The set of performance measures
resulting from the literature review was modified and classified as mandatory or optional. The resulting Base set and Extended
set form the kidney exchange program reporting standard.

The evidence-based and consensus-based kidney exchange program reporting standard can harmonize practical and scientific
reporting on kidney exchange programs, thus facilitating the advancement of national programs. In addition, the kidney exchange
program reporting standard can promote and align cross-national programs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number623966
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2021


  • end stage renal disease (ESRD)
  • kidney exchange
  • kidney exchange program
  • Living donation
  • reporting standard


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