Kalman filter density reconstruction in ICRH discharges on ASDEX Upgrade

ASDEX-Upgrade team, T.O.S.J. Bosman (Corresponding author), O. Kudláček, E. Fable, M. van Berkel, F. Felici, A. Bock, T. Luda, M.R. de Baar

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Plasma density is one of the key quantities that need to be controlled in real-time as it scales directly with fusion power and, if left uncontrolled, density limits can be reached leading to a disruption. On ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), the real-time measurements are the line-integrated density, measured by the interferometers, and the average density derived from the bremsstrahlung measured by spectroscopy. For control, these measurements are used to reconstruct the radial density profile using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). However, in discharges where ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is used, the measurements from the interferometers are corrupted and the reconstructed density is false. In this paper, the existing EKF implementation is improved, implemented and experimentally verified on AUG. The new EKF includes a new particle transport model in the prediction model RAPDENS as well as a new representation of ionization and recombination. Furthermore, an algorithm was introduced that is capable of detecting the corrupt diagnostics; this algorithm is based on the rate of change of the innovation residual. The changes to the RAPDENS observer resulted in better density reconstruction in ICRH discharges where corrupt measurement occur. The new version has been implemented on the real-time control system at AUG and functions properly in ICRH discharges.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112510
Number of pages11
JournalFusion Engineering and Design
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
DIFFER is part of the institutes organization of NWO. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom Research and Training Programme 2014–2018 and 2019–2020 under grant agreement No. 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.


  • AUG
  • Density reconstruction
  • Kalman filter


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