Job demands-resources theory: taking stock and looking forward

Arnold B. Bakker, E. Demerouti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2682 Citations (Scopus)
10 Downloads (Pure)


The job demands−resources (JD-R) model was introduced in the international literature 15 years ago (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). The model has been applied in thousands of organizations and has inspired hundreds of empirical articles, including 1 of the most downloaded articles of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005). This article provides evidence for the buffering role of various job resources on the impact of various job demands on burnout. In the present article, we look back on the first 10 years of the JD-R model (2001–2010), and discuss how the model matured into JD-R theory (2011–2016). Moreover, we look at the future of the theory and outline which new issues in JD-R theory are worthwhile of investigation. We also discuss practical applications. It is our hope that JD-R theory will continue to inspire researchers and practitioners who want to promote employee well-being and effective organizational functioning.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-285
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Occupational Health Psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017


  • Burnout
  • Job demands-resources theory
  • Job performance
  • Well-being
  • Work engagement
  • Self Efficacy
  • Workload/psychology
  • Humans
  • Models, Psychological
  • Work/psychology
  • Burnout, Professional/psychology
  • Job Satisfaction
  • Motivation
  • Stress, Psychological/psychology
  • Work Performance


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