It Takes Two to Tango: The Interplay between Prostate Cancer and Its Microenvironment from an Epigenetic Perspective

Anniek Zaalberg, Elisabeth Pottendorfer, Wilbert Zwart (Corresponding author), Andries M. Bergman (Corresponding author)

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Abstract

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Consequently, there is an urgent unmet need for novel treatment avenues. In addition to somatic genetic alterations, deviations in the epigenetic landscape of cancer cells and their tumor microenvironment (TME) are critical drivers of prostate cancer initiation and progression. Unlike genomic mutations, epigenetic modifications are potentially reversible. Therefore, the inhibition of aberrant epigenetic modifications represents an attractive and exciting novel treatment strategy for castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. Moreover, drugs targeting the epigenome also exhibit synergistic interactions with conventional therapeutics by directly enhancing their anti-tumorigenic properties by “priming” the tumor and tumor microenvironment to increase drug sensitivity. This review summarizes the major epigenetic alterations in prostate cancer and its TME, and their involvement in prostate tumorigenesis, and discusses the impact of epigenome-targeted therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number294
Number of pages18
JournalCancers
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2024

Keywords

  • androgen receptor targeted therapy
  • epigenetics
  • immunotherapy
  • prostate cancer
  • tumor microenvironment

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