The texture profile analysis test is an imitative test to determine texture properties of food, which quantify the consumer’s perception of eating food. The instrumental texture parameters obtained from this test depend on the specimen size and the nonstandardized test conditions. To overcome this problem, texture properties are here related to intrinsic mechanical properties, which are independent of the test conditions. Two types of materials are used to investigate the effect of viscoelasticity, plasticity and damage on the texture parameters for varying test conditions. Analytical relations between mechanical properties, test conditions, and the instrumental hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness are determined. The hardness is obtained from the stiffness of the material, which is potentially rate-dependent, and the yield stress of a material in case of plasticity. The springiness is determined by the recoverable or irrecoverable strain in the material, which results from the mechanical properties in combination with the test conditions. Cohesiveness and springiness are found to be strongly related, unless structural damage is present in the material. Adhesiveness is only an indirect measure of the adhesion between the material and compression plate and depends on the test conditions and stiffness of the material. Finite element simulations reveal a decrease of hardness in case of a nonflat top surface, indicating the importance of geometrical effects.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) for the financial support.
- Mechanical properties
- Texture profile analysis