Integrating individual strategies in the Job Demands-Resources theory

Evangelia Demerouti (Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model was introduced in the 00’s to explain the causes of burnout. Later it matured into JD-R theory that can explain how various employee and organizational outcomes develop. Job demands are responsible for the health impairment process, whereas job resources initiate a motivational process. These processes occur simultaneously and have unique as well as interactive effects on outcomes. The role of the individual in the form of personal resources was added in the JD-R theory more recently. The current paper expands the role of the individual in the JD-R theory even further by presenting strategies that individuals use to (i) deal directly with the unfavorable effects of job characteristics including actual or anticipated loss of resources, namely coping and recovery; (ii) maximize favorable effects, goal achievement and avoid losses, i.e., self-regulation and (iii) alter job characteristics such that they are less demanding and more motivating, i.e., job crafting. It is discussed that individual strategies can be integrated in the JD-R Theory, both as a mediator and a moderator of both processes. It is my hope that JD-R Theory will continue to inspire researchers and practitioners who want to promote employee well-being and effective organizational functioning.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5-32
Number of pages28
JournalIstanbul Business REsearch
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - May 2018


  • Burnout
  • Coping
  • Job crafting
  • Job demands-resources theory
  • Recovery
  • Self-regulation


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