Integrated numerical-experimental analysis of interfacial fatigue fracture in SnAgCu solder joints

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Abstract

In ball grid array (BGA) packages, solder balls are exposed to cyclic thermomechanical strains arising from the thermal mismatch between package components.Thermo-mechanical fatigue crack propagation in solder balls is almost always observed at the chip side of the bump/pad junction. The objective of the experimental part of this study is to characterize the bump/pad interface under fatigue loading. Fatigue specimens are prepared by reflowing Sn3.8Ag0.5Cu lead-free solder alloy on Ni/Au substrates. Obtained results show that fatigue damage evolution stronglydepends on the microstructure. Applied strain and solder volume both have an influence on the fatigue damage mechanism. In the numerical part of the study, fatigue experiments are modeled using the finite element technique. A cohesive zone approach is used to predict the fatigue damage evolution in soldered connections. Crack propagation is simulated by an irreversible linear traction-separation cohesivezone law accompanied by a non-linear damage parameter. Cohesive zone elements are placed where failure is experimentally observed. Damage evolution parametersfor normal and tangential interaction are scrutinized through dedicated fatigue tests in pure tensile and shear directions. The proposed cohesive zone model is quantitatively capable of describing fatigue failure in soldered joints, which can be furtherextended to a numerical life-time prediction tool in microelectronic packages.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5680-5694
JournalInternational Journal of Solids and Structures
Volume44
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007

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