European institutional actors are increasingly involved in space and security programs. This chapter addresses the programs of institutional actors engaging in space and security activities in Europe, namely, the European Union (EU), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The recent policy developments in these organizations and European countries as described in Chap. 23, “Strategic Overview of European Space and Security Governance” of this Handbook are inextricably intertwined with the national programs of the European Member States that are presented in the corresponding chapters of Space and Security Programs in the Largest, Medium-Sized and Smaller European Countries. This chapter includes space activities and programs in the fields of Earth observation (EO); Satellite Communication (SATCOM); Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT); and Space Situational Awareness (SSA).
|Title of host publication||Handbook of Space Security|
|Subtitle of host publication||Policies, Applications and Programs|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|