Insights into type-I edge localized modes and edge localized mode control from JOREK non-linear magneto-hydrodynamic simulations

M. Hölzl, G.T.A. Huijsmans, F. Orain, F.J. Artola, S. Pamela, M. Bécoulet, D. van Vugt, F. Liu, S. Futatani, A. Lessig, E. Wolfrum, F. Mink, E. Trier, M. Dunne, E. Viezzer, T. Eich, B. Vanovac, L. Frassinetti, S. Guenter, K. LacknerI. Krebs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Edge localized modes (ELMs) are repetitive instabilities driven by the large pressure gradients and current densities in the edge of H-mode plasmas. Type-I ELMs lead to a fast collapse of the H-mode pedestal within several hundred microseconds to a few milliseconds. Localized transient heat fluxes to divertor targets are expected to exceed tolerable limits for ITER, requiring advanced insights into ELM physics and applicable mitigation methods. This paper describes how non-linear magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations can contribute to this effort. The JOREK code is introduced, which allows the study of large-scale plasma instabilities in tokamak X-point plasmas covering the main plasma, the scrape-off layer, and the divertor region with its finite element grid. We review key physics relevant for type-I ELMs and show to what extent JOREK simulations agree with experiments and help reveal the underlying mechanisms. Simulations and experimental findings are compared in many respects for type-I ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade. The role of plasma flows and non-linear mode coupling for the spatial and temporal structure of ELMs is emphasized, and the loss mechanisms are discussed. An overview of recent ELM-related research using JOREK is given, including ELM crashes, ELM-free regimes, ELM pacing by pellets and magnetic kicks, and mitigation or suppression by resonant magnetic perturbation coils (RMPs). Simulations of ELMs and ELM control methods agree in many respects with experimental observations from various tokamak experiments. On this basis, predictive simulations become more and more feasible. A brief outlook is given, showing the main priorities for further research in the field of ELM physics and further developments necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)518-528
JournalContributions to Plasma Physics
Volume58
Issue number6-8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Event16th International Workshop on Plasma Edge Theory in Fusion Devices - Marseill, France
Duration: 27 Sep 201729 Sep 2017

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magnetohydrodynamic simulation
physics
simulation
crashes
magnetohydrodynamic stability
magnetohydrodynamic flow
pressure gradients
pellets
coupled modes

Keywords

  • Ballooning mode
  • ELM control
  • ELMs
  • JOREK
  • MHD
  • Mode coupling
  • Stochastic field
  • Tokamak

Cite this

Hölzl, M. ; Huijsmans, G.T.A. ; Orain, F. ; Artola, F.J. ; Pamela, S. ; Bécoulet, M. ; van Vugt, D. ; Liu, F. ; Futatani, S. ; Lessig, A. ; Wolfrum, E. ; Mink, F. ; Trier, E. ; Dunne, M. ; Viezzer, E. ; Eich, T. ; Vanovac, B. ; Frassinetti, L. ; Guenter, S. ; Lackner, K. ; Krebs, I. / Insights into type-I edge localized modes and edge localized mode control from JOREK non-linear magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. In: Contributions to Plasma Physics. 2018 ; Vol. 58, No. 6-8. pp. 518-528.
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abstract = "Edge localized modes (ELMs) are repetitive instabilities driven by the large pressure gradients and current densities in the edge of H-mode plasmas. Type-I ELMs lead to a fast collapse of the H-mode pedestal within several hundred microseconds to a few milliseconds. Localized transient heat fluxes to divertor targets are expected to exceed tolerable limits for ITER, requiring advanced insights into ELM physics and applicable mitigation methods. This paper describes how non-linear magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations can contribute to this effort. The JOREK code is introduced, which allows the study of large-scale plasma instabilities in tokamak X-point plasmas covering the main plasma, the scrape-off layer, and the divertor region with its finite element grid. We review key physics relevant for type-I ELMs and show to what extent JOREK simulations agree with experiments and help reveal the underlying mechanisms. Simulations and experimental findings are compared in many respects for type-I ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade. The role of plasma flows and non-linear mode coupling for the spatial and temporal structure of ELMs is emphasized, and the loss mechanisms are discussed. An overview of recent ELM-related research using JOREK is given, including ELM crashes, ELM-free regimes, ELM pacing by pellets and magnetic kicks, and mitigation or suppression by resonant magnetic perturbation coils (RMPs). Simulations of ELMs and ELM control methods agree in many respects with experimental observations from various tokamak experiments. On this basis, predictive simulations become more and more feasible. A brief outlook is given, showing the main priorities for further research in the field of ELM physics and further developments necessary.",
keywords = "Ballooning mode, ELM control, ELMs, JOREK, MHD, Mode coupling, Stochastic field, Tokamak",
author = "M. H{\"o}lzl and G.T.A. Huijsmans and F. Orain and F.J. Artola and S. Pamela and M. B{\'e}coulet and {van Vugt}, D. and F. Liu and S. Futatani and A. Lessig and E. Wolfrum and F. Mink and E. Trier and M. Dunne and E. Viezzer and T. Eich and B. Vanovac and L. Frassinetti and S. Guenter and K. Lackner and I. Krebs",
year = "2018",
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Hölzl, M, Huijsmans, GTA, Orain, F, Artola, FJ, Pamela, S, Bécoulet, M, van Vugt, D, Liu, F, Futatani, S, Lessig, A, Wolfrum, E, Mink, F, Trier, E, Dunne, M, Viezzer, E, Eich, T, Vanovac, B, Frassinetti, L, Guenter, S, Lackner, K & Krebs, I 2018, 'Insights into type-I edge localized modes and edge localized mode control from JOREK non-linear magneto-hydrodynamic simulations', Contributions to Plasma Physics, vol. 58, no. 6-8, pp. 518-528. https://doi.org/10.1002/ctpp.201700142

Insights into type-I edge localized modes and edge localized mode control from JOREK non-linear magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. / Hölzl, M.; Huijsmans, G.T.A.; Orain, F.; Artola, F.J.; Pamela, S.; Bécoulet, M.; van Vugt, D.; Liu, F.; Futatani, S.; Lessig, A.; Wolfrum, E.; Mink, F.; Trier, E.; Dunne, M.; Viezzer, E.; Eich, T.; Vanovac, B.; Frassinetti, L.; Guenter, S.; Lackner, K.; Krebs, I.

In: Contributions to Plasma Physics, Vol. 58, No. 6-8, 2018, p. 518-528.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Insights into type-I edge localized modes and edge localized mode control from JOREK non-linear magneto-hydrodynamic simulations

AU - Hölzl, M.

AU - Huijsmans, G.T.A.

AU - Orain, F.

AU - Artola, F.J.

AU - Pamela, S.

AU - Bécoulet, M.

AU - van Vugt, D.

AU - Liu, F.

AU - Futatani, S.

AU - Lessig, A.

AU - Wolfrum, E.

AU - Mink, F.

AU - Trier, E.

AU - Dunne, M.

AU - Viezzer, E.

AU - Eich, T.

AU - Vanovac, B.

AU - Frassinetti, L.

AU - Guenter, S.

AU - Lackner, K.

AU - Krebs, I.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Edge localized modes (ELMs) are repetitive instabilities driven by the large pressure gradients and current densities in the edge of H-mode plasmas. Type-I ELMs lead to a fast collapse of the H-mode pedestal within several hundred microseconds to a few milliseconds. Localized transient heat fluxes to divertor targets are expected to exceed tolerable limits for ITER, requiring advanced insights into ELM physics and applicable mitigation methods. This paper describes how non-linear magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations can contribute to this effort. The JOREK code is introduced, which allows the study of large-scale plasma instabilities in tokamak X-point plasmas covering the main plasma, the scrape-off layer, and the divertor region with its finite element grid. We review key physics relevant for type-I ELMs and show to what extent JOREK simulations agree with experiments and help reveal the underlying mechanisms. Simulations and experimental findings are compared in many respects for type-I ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade. The role of plasma flows and non-linear mode coupling for the spatial and temporal structure of ELMs is emphasized, and the loss mechanisms are discussed. An overview of recent ELM-related research using JOREK is given, including ELM crashes, ELM-free regimes, ELM pacing by pellets and magnetic kicks, and mitigation or suppression by resonant magnetic perturbation coils (RMPs). Simulations of ELMs and ELM control methods agree in many respects with experimental observations from various tokamak experiments. On this basis, predictive simulations become more and more feasible. A brief outlook is given, showing the main priorities for further research in the field of ELM physics and further developments necessary.

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KW - Ballooning mode

KW - ELM control

KW - ELMs

KW - JOREK

KW - MHD

KW - Mode coupling

KW - Stochastic field

KW - Tokamak

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DO - 10.1002/ctpp.201700142

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85046547212

VL - 58

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EP - 528

JO - Contributions to Plasma Physics

JF - Contributions to Plasma Physics

SN - 0863-1042

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