Influence of Noise on Scattering-Parameter Measurements

Dazhen Gu (Corresponding author), Jeffrey Jargon, Matthew Ryan, A. Hubrechsen

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We present a general model of noisy scattering parameter (S-parameter) measurements performed by a vector network analyzer (VNA). The residual error of the S-parameter due to the noise is examined to appear as a complex Gaussian quotient. The statistical analysis of the residual error is given and relevant statistical quantities are derived and discussed. Experiments were conducted on a two-port VNA to validate the noise influenced S-parameter model. We show that the uncertainty due to the noise is often critical in S-parameter measurements, in particular for S-parameters of a small magnitude.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4925-4939
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2020


  • Network analysis
  • Noise
  • Probability distribution
  • Random variable
  • Scattering parameter
  • Uncertainty


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