Nanowire based solar cells have attracted great attention due to their potential for high efficiency and low device cost. Photovoltaic devices based on InP nanowires now have characteristics comparable to InP bulk solar cells. A detailed and direct correlation of the influence of growth conditions on performance is necessary to improve efficiency further. We explored the effects of the growth temperature, and of the addition of HCl during growth, on the efficiency of nanowire array based solar cell devices. By increasing HCl, the saturation dark current was reduced, and thereby the nanowire solar cell efficiency was enhanced from less than 1% to 7.6% under AM 1.5 illumination at 1 sun. At the same time, we observed that the solar cell efficiency decreased by increasing the tri-methyl-indium content, strongly suggesting that these effects are carbon related.