The immune response to an implanted biomaterial is orchestrated by macrophages. In this study various nanogrooved patterns were created by using laser interference lithography and reactive ion etching. The created nanogrooves mimic the natural extracellular matrix environment. Macrophage cell culture demonstrated that interleukin 1ß and TNF-a cytokine production were upregulated on nanogrooved substrates. In vivo subcutaneous implantation in a validated mouse cage model for 14 days demonstrated that nanogrooves enhanced and guided cell adhesion, and few multinucleated cells were formed. In agreement with the in vitro results, cytokine production was found to be nanogroove dependent, as interleukin 1ß, TNF-a, TGF-ß and osteopontin became upregulated. The results indicate that biomaterial surface texturing, especially at the nanometric scale, can be used to control macrophage activation to induce a wound healing response, rather than a profound inflammatory response.
|Publication status||Published - 2012|