A survey is given of in-situ diagnostics of plasma and surface for application in plasma etching and deposition. Especially those diagnostics that increase the fundamental understanding of the elementary processes occurring both within the plasma and at the surface are highlighted. In general, diagnostics are performed to determine the value of a physical parameter. This value is fed into models of plasma or surface, and in that way the understanding of the process is enhanced. In the paper first the most interesting physical parameters are defined. Subsequently the diagnostic techniques currently available to determine those parameters are reviewed.