In-depth investigation of thermochemical performance in a heat battery: Cyclic analysis of K2CO3, MgCl2 and Na2S

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Thermochemical materials K2CO3, MgCl2 and Na2S have been investigated in depth on energy density, power output and chemical stability in view of domestic heat storage application, presenting a critical assessment of potential chemical side reactions in an open and closed reactor concept. These materials were selected based on a recent review on all possible salt hydrates, within the frame of a thermochemical heat battery and considering recent advances in heat storage application. Judged by gravimetric and calorimetric experiments in operating conditions and worst-case-scenario conditions, K2CO3 is recommended for both an open and closed system heat battery. The compound is chemically robust with a material level energy density of 1.28 GJ/m3 in an open system and 0.95 GJ/m3 in a closed system, yielding a power output of 283–675 kW/m3. Na2S and MgCl2 on the other hand are chemically not robust in heat storage application, although having a higher energy density, output power and temperature in one cycle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-173
Number of pages15
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2018


  • Chemical stability
  • Energy density
  • Enthalpy of hydration
  • Phase diagram
  • Salt hydrates
  • Side reactions
  • Thermo chemical heat storage


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