Improved Detection of Scaphoid Fractures with High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative CT Compared with Conventional CT

A.M. Daniels (Corresponding author), M S A M Bevers, S Sassen, C E Wyers, B van Rietbergen, P P M M Geusens, S Kaarsemaker, P F W Hannemann, M Poeze, J P van den Bergh, H M J Janzing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scintigraphy are second-line imaging techniques that are frequently used for the evaluation of patients with a clinically suspected scaphoid fracture. However, as a result of varying diagnostic performance results, no true reference standard exists for scaphoid fracture diagnosis. We hypothesized that the use of high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) in patients with a clinically suspected scaphoid fracture could improve scaphoid fracture detection compared with conventional CT in the clinical setting.

METHODS: The present study included 91 consecutive patients (≥18 years of age) who presented to the emergency department with a clinically suspected scaphoid fracture between December 2017 and October 2018. All patients were clinically reassessed within 14 days after first presentation, followed by CT and HR-pQCT. If a scaphoid fracture was present, the fracture type was determined according to the Herbert classification system and correlation between CT and HR-pQCT was estimated with use of the Kendall W statistic or coefficient of concordance (W) (the closer to 1, the higher the correlation).

RESULTS: The cohort included 45 men and 46 women with a median age of 52 years (interquartile range, 29 to 67 years). HR-pQCT revealed a scaphoid fracture in 24 patients (26%), whereas CT revealed a scaphoid fracture in 15 patients (16%). Patients with a scaphoid fracture were younger and more often male. The correlation between CT and HR-pQCT was high for scaphoid fracture type according to the Herbert classification system (W = 0.793; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.91; p < 0.001) and very high for scaphoid fracture location (W = 0.955; 95%, CI 0.90 to 0.98; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, the number of patients diagnosed with a scaphoid fracture was 60% higher when using HR-pQCT as compared with CT. These findings imply that a substantial proportion of fractures-in this study, more than one-third-will be missed by the current application of CT scanning in patients with a clinically suspected scaphoid fracture.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Oct 2020

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