Implementation and validation of a three degrees of freedom steering-system model in a full vehicle model

J. Loof (Corresponding author), I.J.M. Besselink, H. Nijmeijer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
547 Downloads (Pure)


This paper describes the coupling between a three degrees of freedom steering-system model and a multi-body truck model. The steering-system model includes the king-pin geometry to provide the correct feedback torque from the road to the steering-system. The steering-system model is combined with a validated tractor semi-trailer model. An instrumented tractor semi-trailer has been tested on a proving ground and the steering-wheel torque, pitman-arm angle, king-pin angles and drag-link force have been measured during steady-state cornering, a step steer input and a sinusoidal steering input. It is shown that the steering-system model is able to accurately predict the steering-wheel torque for all tests and the vehicle model is accurate for vehicle motions up to a frequency where the lateral acceleration gain is minimum. Even though the vehicle response is not accurate above this frequency, the steering-wheel torque is still represented accurately.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)86-107
Number of pages22
JournalVehicle System Dynamics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2019


  • Commercial vehicle
  • hydraulic power-steering
  • parametrisation
  • steering-system
  • steering-wheel torque prediction
  • wheatstone bridge


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