Camera-based remote photoplethysmography (remote-PPG) enables contactless measurement of blood volume pulse from the human skin. Skin visibility is essential to remote-PPG as the camera needs to capture the light reflected from the skin that penetrates deep into skin tissues and carries blood pulsation information. The use of facial makeup may jeopardize this measurement by reducing the amount of light penetrating into and reflecting from the skin. In this paper, we conduct an empirical study to thoroughly investigate the impact of makeup on remote-PPG monitoring, in both the visible (RGB) and invisible (Near Infrared, NIR) lighting conditions. The experiment shows that makeup has negative influence on remote-PPG, which reduces the relative PPG strength (AC/DC) at different wavelengths and changes the normalized PPG signature across multiple wavelengths. It makes (i) the pulse-rate extraction more difficult in both the RGB and NIR, although NIR is less affected than RGB, and (ii) the blood oxygen saturation extraction in NIR impossible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that systematically investigate the impact of makeup on camera-based remote-PPG monitoring.
- biomedical monitoring
- heart rate