Hypocretin/orexin disturbances in neurological disorders

R. Fronczek, C.R. Baumann, G.J. Lammers, C.L. Bassetti, S. Overeem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)


The hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) system plays a crucial role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. The strongest evidence for this is the fact that the primary sleep disorder narcolepsy is caused by disrupted hypocretin signaling in humans as well as various animal models. There is a growing interest in the role of hypocretin defects not only in the pathophysiology of other sleep disorders, but also in neurological diseases with associated sleep symptomatology. In this paper we first review the current methods to measure the integrity of the hypocretin system in human patients. The most widely used technique entails the measurement of hypocretin-1 in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid. In addition, hypocretin levels can be measured in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue extract. Finally, in post-mortem hypothalamic material, the number of hypocretin neurons can be precisely quantified. In the second part of this paper we describe the various neurological disorders in which hypocretin defects have been reported. These include neurodegenerative, neuromuscular and immune-mediated diseases, as well as traumatic brain injury. We conclude with a discussion of the functional relevance of partial hypocretin defects, and the various pathophysiological mechanisms that can lead to such defects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-22
Number of pages14
JournalSleep Medicine Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamus
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • Neurons
  • Neuropeptides
  • Orexins
  • Sleep Wake Disorders
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review


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