Homogeneous CO2 conversion by microwave plasma: wave propagation and diagnostics

N. den Harder, D.C.M. van den Bekerom, R.S. Al, M.F. Graswinckel, J.M. Palomares, F.J.J. Peeters, S. Ponduri, T. Minea, W.A. Bongers, M.C.M. van de Sanden, G.J. van Rooij

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Abstract

A suite of diagnostics is proposed to characterize microwave plasma dissociation of CO2: laser scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and passive emission imaging. It provides a comprehensive performance characterization as is illustrated on the basis of experiments in a 2.45 GHz, 1 kW microwave reactor with tangential gas injection. For example, two operating regimes are identified as function of pressure: the diffuse and constricted plasma mode. Their occurrence is explained by evaluation of microwave propagation, which changes with the electron-heavy particle collision frequency ve−h. In the diffuse mode, gas temperatures of 1500–3500 K are determined. The measured conversion degree, specific energy input, and temperature are summarized in a two-temperature thermal model, which is solved to obtain the gas temperature at the periphery of the reactor and the size of the hot zone. Solutions are found with edge temperatures of hundreds of K, and hot zone fractions which agree with the measured behavior. The agreement shows that non-thermal processes play only a marginal role in the measured parameter space of the diffuse discharge. In the constricted mode, the radial plasma size is independent of power. A skin depth equal to the plasma size corresponds to electron densities of 1018–1019 m−3. Temperatures in the central filament are in the range 3000–5000 K. Both discharge modes are up to 50% energy efficient in CO production. Rayleigh signals increase in the afterglow, hinting at rapid gas cooling assuming that the gas composition remains unchanged.

LanguageEnglish
Article numbere201600120
Number of pages24
JournalPlasma Processes and Polymers
Volume14
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2017

Fingerprint

Plasma waves
Carbon Monoxide
plasma waves
Wave propagation
wave propagation
Microwaves
microwaves
gas temperature
Gases
Plasmas
reactors
gas cooling
gas injection
Temperature
particle collisions
temperature
gas composition
afterglows
filaments
infrared spectroscopy

Keywords

  • carbon dioxide
  • laser scattering
  • plasma
  • plasmolysis
  • solar fuels
  • synthetic fuel

Cite this

den Harder, N., van den Bekerom, D. C. M., Al, R. S., Graswinckel, M. F., Palomares, J. M., Peeters, F. J. J., ... van Rooij, G. J. (2017). Homogeneous CO2 conversion by microwave plasma: wave propagation and diagnostics. Plasma Processes and Polymers, 14(6), [e201600120]. DOI: 10.1002/ppap.201600120
den Harder, N. ; van den Bekerom, D.C.M. ; Al, R.S. ; Graswinckel, M.F. ; Palomares, J.M. ; Peeters, F.J.J. ; Ponduri, S. ; Minea, T. ; Bongers, W.A. ; van de Sanden, M.C.M. ; van Rooij, G.J./ Homogeneous CO2 conversion by microwave plasma : wave propagation and diagnostics. In: Plasma Processes and Polymers. 2017 ; Vol. 14, No. 6.
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den Harder, N, van den Bekerom, DCM, Al, RS, Graswinckel, MF, Palomares, JM, Peeters, FJJ, Ponduri, S, Minea, T, Bongers, WA, van de Sanden, MCM & van Rooij, GJ 2017, 'Homogeneous CO2 conversion by microwave plasma: wave propagation and diagnostics' Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 14, no. 6, e201600120. DOI: 10.1002/ppap.201600120

Homogeneous CO2 conversion by microwave plasma : wave propagation and diagnostics. / den Harder, N.; van den Bekerom, D.C.M.; Al, R.S.; Graswinckel, M.F.; Palomares, J.M.; Peeters, F.J.J.; Ponduri, S.; Minea, T.; Bongers, W.A.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.; van Rooij, G.J.

In: Plasma Processes and Polymers, Vol. 14, No. 6, e201600120, 01.06.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Homogeneous CO2 conversion by microwave plasma

T2 - Plasma Processes and Polymers

AU - den Harder,N.

AU - van den Bekerom,D.C.M.

AU - Al,R.S.

AU - Graswinckel,M.F.

AU - Palomares,J.M.

AU - Peeters,F.J.J.

AU - Ponduri,S.

AU - Minea,T.

AU - Bongers,W.A.

AU - van de Sanden,M.C.M.

AU - van Rooij,G.J.

PY - 2017/6/1

Y1 - 2017/6/1

N2 - A suite of diagnostics is proposed to characterize microwave plasma dissociation of CO2: laser scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and passive emission imaging. It provides a comprehensive performance characterization as is illustrated on the basis of experiments in a 2.45 GHz, 1 kW microwave reactor with tangential gas injection. For example, two operating regimes are identified as function of pressure: the diffuse and constricted plasma mode. Their occurrence is explained by evaluation of microwave propagation, which changes with the electron-heavy particle collision frequency ve−h. In the diffuse mode, gas temperatures of 1500–3500 K are determined. The measured conversion degree, specific energy input, and temperature are summarized in a two-temperature thermal model, which is solved to obtain the gas temperature at the periphery of the reactor and the size of the hot zone. Solutions are found with edge temperatures of hundreds of K, and hot zone fractions which agree with the measured behavior. The agreement shows that non-thermal processes play only a marginal role in the measured parameter space of the diffuse discharge. In the constricted mode, the radial plasma size is independent of power. A skin depth equal to the plasma size corresponds to electron densities of 1018–1019 m−3. Temperatures in the central filament are in the range 3000–5000 K. Both discharge modes are up to 50% energy efficient in CO production. Rayleigh signals increase in the afterglow, hinting at rapid gas cooling assuming that the gas composition remains unchanged.

AB - A suite of diagnostics is proposed to characterize microwave plasma dissociation of CO2: laser scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and passive emission imaging. It provides a comprehensive performance characterization as is illustrated on the basis of experiments in a 2.45 GHz, 1 kW microwave reactor with tangential gas injection. For example, two operating regimes are identified as function of pressure: the diffuse and constricted plasma mode. Their occurrence is explained by evaluation of microwave propagation, which changes with the electron-heavy particle collision frequency ve−h. In the diffuse mode, gas temperatures of 1500–3500 K are determined. The measured conversion degree, specific energy input, and temperature are summarized in a two-temperature thermal model, which is solved to obtain the gas temperature at the periphery of the reactor and the size of the hot zone. Solutions are found with edge temperatures of hundreds of K, and hot zone fractions which agree with the measured behavior. The agreement shows that non-thermal processes play only a marginal role in the measured parameter space of the diffuse discharge. In the constricted mode, the radial plasma size is independent of power. A skin depth equal to the plasma size corresponds to electron densities of 1018–1019 m−3. Temperatures in the central filament are in the range 3000–5000 K. Both discharge modes are up to 50% energy efficient in CO production. Rayleigh signals increase in the afterglow, hinting at rapid gas cooling assuming that the gas composition remains unchanged.

KW - carbon dioxide

KW - laser scattering

KW - plasma

KW - plasmolysis

KW - solar fuels

KW - synthetic fuel

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85002002715&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/ppap.201600120

DO - 10.1002/ppap.201600120

M3 - Article

VL - 14

JO - Plasma Processes and Polymers

JF - Plasma Processes and Polymers

SN - 1612-8850

IS - 6

M1 - e201600120

ER -

den Harder N, van den Bekerom DCM, Al RS, Graswinckel MF, Palomares JM, Peeters FJJ et al. Homogeneous CO2 conversion by microwave plasma: wave propagation and diagnostics. Plasma Processes and Polymers. 2017 Jun 1;14(6). e201600120. Available from, DOI: 10.1002/ppap.201600120