Using finite element analyses, the authors investigated which muscle groups acting around the hip-joint most prominently affected the load distributions in cemented total hip reconstructions with a bonded and debonded femoral stem. The purpose was to determine which muscle groups should be included in pre-clinical tests, predicting bone adaptation and mechanical failure of cemented reconstructions, ensuring an adequate representation of in vivo loading of the reconstruction. Loads were applied as occurring during heel-strike, mid-stance and push-off phases of gait. The stress/strain distributions within the reconstruction, produced by the hip-joint contact force, were compared to ones produced after sequentially including the abductors, the iliotibial tract and the adductors and vastii. Inclusion of the abductors had the most pronounced effect. They neutralized lateral bending of the reconstruction at heel-strike and increased medial bending at mid-stance and push-off. Bone strains and stem stresses were changed accordingly. Peak tensile cement stresses were reduced during all gait phases by amounts up to 50% around a bonded stem and 11% around a debonded one. Additional inclusion of the iliotibial tract, the adductors and the vastii produced relatively small effects during all gait phases. Their most prominent effect was a slight reduction of bone strains at the level of the stem tip during heelstrike. These results suggest that a loading configuration including the hip-joint contact force and the abductor forces can adequately reproduce in vivo loading of cemented total hip reconstructions in pre-clinical tests.