High-throughput experimentation in atom transfer radical polymerization : a general approach toward a directed design and understanding of optimal catalytic systems

H. Zhang, V.N. Marin, M.W.M. Fijten, U.S. Schubert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High-throughput experimentation (HTE) was successfully applied in atom transfer radical polymn. (ATRP) of Me methacrylate (MMA) for the rapid screening and optimization of different reaction conditions. A library of 108 different reactions was designed for this purpose, which used four different initiators [ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, Me 2-bromopropionate, (1-bromoethyl)benzene, and p-toluenesulfonyl chloride], five metal salts (CuBr, CuCl, CuSCN, FeBr2, and FeCl2), and nine ligands (2,2'-bipyridine and its derivs.). The optimal reaction conditions for Cu(I) halide, CuSCN, and Fe(II) halide-mediated ATRP systems with 2,2'-bipyridine and its 4,4'-dialkyl-substituted derivs. as ligands were detd. Cu(I)-mediated systems were better controlled than Fe(II)-mediated ones under the examd. conditions. A bipyridine-type ligand with a crit. length of the substituted alkyl group (i.e., 4,4'-dihexyl 2,2'-bipyridine) exhibited the best performance in Cu(I)-mediated systems, and p-toluenesulfonyl chloride and Et 2-bromoisobutyrate could effectively initiate Cu(I)-mediated ATRP of MMA, resulting in polymers with low polydispersities in most cases. Besides, Cu(I) halide-mediated ATRP with 4,5'-dimethyl 2,2'-bipyridine as the ligand and p-toluenesulfonyl chloride as the initiator proved to be better controlled than those with 4,4'-dimethyl 2,2'-bipyridine as the ligand, and polymers with much lower polydispersities were obtained in the former cases. This successful HTE example opens up a way to significantly accelerate the development of new catalytic systems for ATRP and to improve the understanding of structure-property relationships of the reaction systems
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1876-1885
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry
Volume42
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

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