High-Mobility and Bias-Stable Field-Effect Transistors Based on Lead-Free Formamidinium Tin Iodide Perovskites

Zhiwen Zhou, Qihua Li, Mojun Chen, Xuerong Zheng, Xiao Wu, Xinhui Lu, Shuxia Tao, Ni Zhao (Corresponding author)

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Electronic devices based on tin halide perovskites often exhibit a poor operational stability. Here, we report an additive engineering strategy to realize high-performance and stable field-effect transistors (FETs) based on 3D formamidinium tin iodide (FASnI3) films. By comparatively studying the modification effects of two additives, i.e., phenethylammonium iodide and 4-fluorophenylethylammonium iodide via combined experimental and theoretical investigations, we unambiguously point out the general effects of phenethylammonium (PEA) and its fluorinated derivative (FPEA) in enhancing crystallization of FASnI3 films and the unique role of fluorination in reducing structural defects, suppressing oxidation of Sn2+ and blocking oxygen and water involved defect reactions. The optimized FPEA-modified FASnI3 FETs reach a record high field-effect mobility of 15.1 cm2/(V·s) while showing negligible hysteresis. The devices exhibit less than 10% and 3% current variation during over 2 h continuous bias stressing and 4200-cycle switching test, respectively, representing the best stability achieved so far for all Sn-based FETs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4496-4505
Number of pages10
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.


The authors would like to thank Dr. Biao Zhang from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for assistance with the AFM measurements. This work was supported by the Excellent Young Scientists Fund from National Natural Science Foundation of China (62022004) and General Research Fund (RGC ref. no. 14307819) from the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong. S.T. acknowledges funding by NWO START-UP (Project No. 740.018.024) and VIDI (Project No. VI.Vidi.213.091) from The Netherlands. Q.L. acknowledges the China Scholarship Council (CSC) (No. 201808440385).

FundersFunder number
Research Grants Council, University Grants Committee14307819
National Natural Science Foundation of China62022004
Research Grants Council, University Grants Committee
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek740.018.024
Hong Kong Polytechnic University
China Scholarship Council201808440385
General Research Fund of Shanghai Normal University


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