High-gain planar array of reactively loaded antennas for limited scan range applications

Ronis Maximidis (Corresponding author), Diego Caratelli, Giovanni Toso, Bart Smolders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This paper proposes a novel high-gain antenna element that can be used in antenna arrays that only require a limited scan range. Each high-gain antenna element uses a linear sub-array of highly-coupled open-ended waveguides. The active central element of this sub-array is directly fed, while the remaining passive waveguides are reactively loaded. The loads are implemented by short-circuits positioned at various distances from the radiating aperture. The short-circuit positions control the radiation pattern properties and the scattering parameters of the array. The proposed sub-array antenna element is optimized in the presence of the adjacent elements and provides a high gain and a flat-top main lobe. The horizontal distance between the sub-array centers is large in terms of wavelengths, which leads to limited scanning capabilities in the E-plane. However, along the vertical axis, the element spacing is around 0.6 wavelength at the central frequency that is beneficial to achieve a wider scan range in the H-plane. We show that the sub-array radiation pattern sufficiently filters the grating lobes which appear in the array factor along the E-plane. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed array configuration, an array operating at 28.0 GHz is designed. The designed array supports scan angles up to ±7.5 along the E-plane and ±24.2 along the H-plane.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1376
Number of pages15
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2020


  • Flat-top pattern
  • High-gain array element
  • Mm-wave
  • Phased arrays
  • Sub-array

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