Heterogeneous hazard model of PEV users charging intervals: analysis of four year charging transactions data

S. Kim, D. Yang, S. Rasouli, H.J.P. Timmermans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)
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Public charging infrastructure represents a key success factor in the promotion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). Given that a large initial investment is required for the widespread adoption of PEV, many studies have addressed the location choice problem for charging infrastructure using a priori simple assumptions. Ideally, however, identifying optimal locations of charging stations necessitates an understanding of charging behavior. Limited market penetration of PEV makes it difficult to grasp any regularities in charging behavior. Using a Dutch data set about four-years of charging transactions, this study presents a detailed analysis of inter-charging times. Recognizing that PEV users may exhibit different charging behavior, this study estimates a latent class hazard duration model, which accommodates duration dependence, unobserved heterogeneity and the effects of time-varying covariates. PEV users are endogenously classified into regular and random users by treating charging regularity as a latent variable. The paper provides valuable insights into the dynamics of charging behavior at public charging stations, and which strategies can be successfully used to improve the performance of public charging infrastructure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)248-260
Number of pages13
JournalTransportation Research. Part C: Emerging Technologies
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2017


  • Charging regularity
  • Hazard-based duration model
  • Inter-charging time
  • Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)
  • Public charging infrastructure


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