Heterogeneity in passenger satisfaction with air-rail integration services: results of a finite mixture partial least squares model

Yalong Yuan, Min Yang (Corresponding author), Tao Feng, Soora Rasouli, Dawei Li, Xinpei Ruan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)
128 Downloads (Pure)


Air-rail integration services (ARIS) are a promising solution for intermodal travel, but they also offer challenges such as trip complexity and uncertainty that may negatively impact passenger satisfaction. This paper addresses the quality evaluation of ARIS with a twofold purpose, specifically, (1) to explore the causal relationships between the psychological and behavioral variables of passengers and (2) to identify different passenger groups for precise service improvements. The relationships among passenger expectations, perceived quality, perceived value, satisfaction, complaints and loyalty are hypothesized and analyzed by using a passenger satisfaction index (PSI) model based on a representative sample of 1,345 intermodal passengers at Shijiazhuang Zhengding International Airport (SJW). Next, a finite mixture partial least squares (FIMIX-PLS) technique is applied to explore the heterogeneity. The results suggest that perceived quality, perceived value and passenger expectations have a positive effect on passenger satisfaction, which, in turn, influences passenger loyalty and complaints. Moreover, three passenger segments are found, namely, “perceived value and expectation-oriented passengers”, “perceived quality-oriented passengers”, and “satisfied loyal-conscious passengers”. Interestingly, an overall similarity in the perceived quality among the three passenger segments is observed with the importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) method. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences in the psychological-behavioral relationships of the three passenger segments are identified. Finally, managerial implications are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-158
Number of pages26
JournalTransportation Research. Part A: Policy and Practice
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021


  • Air-rail integration services (ARIS)
  • Finite mixture partial least squares (FIMIX-PLS)
  • Importance-performance map analysis (IPMA)
  • Intermodal passenger
  • Passenger satisfaction index (PSI)


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