Heat transfer study of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) with nano-enhanced phase change materials

Karunesh Kant, Abhishek Anand (Corresponding author), Amritanshu Shukla, Atul Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


The electrical conversion efficiency of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) decreases with an increase in the operating temperature. To overcome this drawback, it required to maintain the operating temperature at standard test conditions. The working temperature of the BIPV can be kept at a higher efficiency end by the usage of phase change materials (PCM). However, the heat transfer rate of conventional PCM is very poor and can be enhanced by using thermal conductive nanoparticles. The present study has been effectuated to show the effect of various nanoparticles on the operating temperature of the BIPV. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis taking into cognizance the heat and mass transfers in a system made of a nano-enhanced PCM attached to the back of a BIPV has been conducted. The n-octadecane has been considered as base PCM material which is mixed with four different nanoparticles at three different concentrations. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3), Copper (Cu), Copper oxide (CuO), and Titanium dioxide (TiO2), have been used as the nanoparticle to augment the thermal conductivity of PCM. The result showed that the addition of nanoparticle in an appropriate amount considerably reduced the operating temperature of BIPV for a longer duration of time. The maximum temperature reduction is obtained with Cu nanoparticle and minimum with TiO2. The panel temperature can be maintained below 40°C for about 60 min. with Cu nanoparticles at 5 % concentration. At the same concentration, Cu will take maximum time i.e. 56 min. to melt completely. The three days numerical simulation at the actual weather conditions of Raebareli (26.2345° N, 81.2409° E) has also been conducted with the Cu nanoparticle and it was noticed that the insertion of nanoparticle in the PCM reduced the operating temperature of the PV panel as compared to the pure PCM. The maximum operating temperature difference of 1.65 °C, 1.19 °C, and 1.15 °C was obtained at first, second, and third day at around 12.50 PM.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101563
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020


  • BIPV
  • Energy Storage
  • Nanoparticle
  • PCM


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