Hardware-in-the-Loop Methods for Real-Time Frequency-Response Measurements of on-Board Power Distribution Systems

T. Roinila (Corresponding author), T. Messo, R. Luhtala, R. Scharrenberg, E. C. W. de Jong, A. Fabian, Y. Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


The operation of more electric aircraft is dependent on the embedded power grid. Therefore, the on-board power-distribution system must be reliable, having a high level of survivability, and promptly respond to any change in aircraft's operation. Recent studies have presented a number of frequency-response-based tools with which to analyze both single- and multiconverter systems. The methods can be efficiently applied for on-board system analysis, stability assessment, and adaptive control design. Most often, wideband measurement techniques have been applied to obtain the frequency response from a specific converter or a subsystem required for the analysis. In the methods, a broadband excitation such as a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) is used as an external injection, and Fourier techniques are applied to extract the spectral information. This paper presents implementation techniques of the wideband methods using power-hardware-in-the-loop measurements based on OPAL-RT real-time simulator. The presented methods make it possible to modify the system characteristics, such as impedance behavior, in real time, thereby providing means for various stability and control design tools for on-board power distribution systems. Experimental measurements are shown from a high-power energy distribution system recently developed at DNV GL, Arnhem, The Netherlands.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8425989
Pages (from-to)5769-5777
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019


  • Frequency response
  • hardware-in-the loop simulation
  • microgrids
  • power distribution
  • system identification


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