Green's functions for a loaded rolling tyre

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A new formulation to determine the unit impulse response (Green’s) functions of a loaded rotating tyre in the vehicle-fixed (Eulerian) reference frame for tyre/road noise predictions is presented. The proposed formulation makes use of the set of eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes for the statically loaded tyre obtained from a finite element (FE) model of the tyre. A closed-form expression for the Green’s functions of a rotating tyre in the Eulerian reference system as a function of the eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of the statically loaded tyre is found. Non-linear effects during loading are accounted for in the FE model, while the frequency shift due to the rotational velocity is included in the calculation of the Green’s functions. In the literature on tyre/road noise these functions are generally used to determine the tyre response during tyre/road contact calculations. The presented formulation opens the possibility to solve the contact problem directly in the Eulerian reference frame and to include local tyre softening due to non-linear effects while keeping the computational advantage of describing the tyre dynamics as a set of impulse response functions. The advantage of obtaining the Green’s functions in the Eulerian reference system is that only the Green’s functions corresponding to the potential contact zone need to be determined, which significantly reduces the computational cost of solving the tyre/road contact and since the mesh is fixed in space, a finer mesh can be used for the potential contact zone, improving the accuracy of the contact force calculations. Although these effects might be less pronounced if a more accurate tyre model is used, it is found that using the Green’s functions of the loaded tyre in a contact force calculation leads to smaller forces than in the unloaded case, lower frequencies are present in the response and they decrease faster as the rotational velocity increases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3462-3470
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Solids and Structures
Issue number25/26
Publication statusPublished - 2011


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