Generation of synthetic aortic valve stenosis geometries for in silico trials

Sabine Verstraeten (Corresponding author), Martijn Hoeijmakers, Pim Tonino, Jan Brüning, Claudio Capelli, Frans van de Vosse, Wouter Huberts

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In silico trials are a promising way to increase the efficiency of the development, and the time to market of cardiovascular implantable devices. The development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices, could benefit from in silico trials to overcome frequently occurring complications such as paravalvular leakage and conduction problems. To be able to perform in silico TAVI trials virtual cohorts of TAVI patients are required. In a virtual cohort, individual patients are represented by computer models that usually require patient-specific aortic valve geometries. This study aimed to develop a virtual cohort generator that generates anatomically plausible, synthetic aortic valve stenosis geometries for in silico TAVI trials and allows for the selection of specific anatomical features that influence the occurrence of complications. To build the generator, a combination of non-parametrical statistical shape modeling and sampling from a copula distribution was used. The developed virtual cohort generator successfully generated synthetic aortic valve stenosis geometries that are comparable with a real cohort, and therefore, are considered as being anatomically plausible. Furthermore, we were able to select specific anatomical features with a sensitivity of around 90%. The virtual cohort generator has the potential to be used by TAVI manufacturers to test their devices. Future work will involve including calcifications to the synthetic geometries, and applying high-fidelity fluid–structure-interaction models to perform in silico trials.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3778
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • aortic valve stenosis
  • In silico trials
  • statistical shape modeling
  • synthetic geometries
  • transcatheter aortic valve implantation
  • virtual cohort


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