Gaze behaviour and electrodermal activity: objective measures of drivers’ trust in automated vehicles

F. Walker (Corresponding author), J. Wang, M.H. Martens, W.B. Verwey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


Studies show that drivers’ intention to use automated vehicles is strongly modulated by trust. It follows that their benefits are unlikely to be achieved if users do not trust them. To date, most studies of trust in automated vehicles have relied on self-reports. However, questionnaires cannot capture real-time changes in drivers’ trust, and are hard to use in applied settings. In previous work, we found evidence that gaze behaviour could provide an effective measure of trust. In this study we tested whether combining gaze behaviour with Electrodermal Activity could provide a stronger metric. The results indicated a strong relationship between self-reported trust, monitoring behaviour and Electrodermal Activity: The higher participants’ self-reported trust, the less they monitored the road, the more attention they paid to a non-driving related secondary task, and the lower their Electrodermal Activity. We also found evidence that combined measures of gaze behaviour and Electrodermal Activity predict self-reported trust better than either of these measures on its own. These findings suggest that such combined measures have the potential to provide a reliable and objective real-time indicator of driver trust.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-412
Number of pages12
JournalTransportation Research. Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019


  • Automated driving
  • Electrodermal Activity
  • Eye movement behaviour
  • Secondary task
  • Trust calibration
  • Trust in automation


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