Gate-bias controlled charge trapping as a mechanism for NO2 detection with field-effect transistors

A. Andringa, J.R. Meijboom, E.C.P. Smits, S.G.J. Mathijssen, P.W.M. Blom, D.M. Leeuw, de

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Detection of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is required to monitor the air-quality for human health and safety. Commercial sensors are typically chemiresistors, however field-effect transistors are being investigated. Although numerous investigations have been reported, the NO2 sensing mechanism is not clear. Here, the detection mechanism using ZnO field-effect transistors is investigated. The current gradually decreases upon NO2 exposure and application of a positive gate bias. The current decrease originates from the trapping of electrons, yielding a shift of the threshold voltage towards the applied gate bias. The shift is observed for extremely low NO2 concentrations down to 10 ppb and can phenomenologically be described by a stretched-exponential time relaxation. NO2 detection has been demonstrated with n-type, p-type, and ambipolar semiconductors. In all cases, the threshold voltage shifts due to gate bias induced electron trapping. The description of the NO2 detection with field-effect transistors is generic for all semiconductors and can be used to improve future NO2 sensors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-107
Number of pages7
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

Charge trapping
Field effect transistors
field effect transistors
trapping
Threshold voltage
Semiconductor materials
Nitrogen Dioxide
Electrons
threshold voltage
Sensors
shift
Air quality
Relaxation time
Health
nitrogen dioxide
air quality
Nitrogen
sensors
health
low concentrations

Cite this

Andringa, A., Meijboom, J. R., Smits, E. C. P., Mathijssen, S. G. J., Blom, P. W. M., & Leeuw, de, D. M. (2011). Gate-bias controlled charge trapping as a mechanism for NO2 detection with field-effect transistors. Advanced Functional Materials, 21(1), 100-107. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201001560
Andringa, A. ; Meijboom, J.R. ; Smits, E.C.P. ; Mathijssen, S.G.J. ; Blom, P.W.M. ; Leeuw, de, D.M. / Gate-bias controlled charge trapping as a mechanism for NO2 detection with field-effect transistors. In: Advanced Functional Materials. 2011 ; Vol. 21, No. 1. pp. 100-107.
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Andringa, A, Meijboom, JR, Smits, ECP, Mathijssen, SGJ, Blom, PWM & Leeuw, de, DM 2011, 'Gate-bias controlled charge trapping as a mechanism for NO2 detection with field-effect transistors', Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 100-107. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201001560

Gate-bias controlled charge trapping as a mechanism for NO2 detection with field-effect transistors. / Andringa, A.; Meijboom, J.R.; Smits, E.C.P.; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, de, D.M.

In: Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2011, p. 100-107.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AB - Detection of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is required to monitor the air-quality for human health and safety. Commercial sensors are typically chemiresistors, however field-effect transistors are being investigated. Although numerous investigations have been reported, the NO2 sensing mechanism is not clear. Here, the detection mechanism using ZnO field-effect transistors is investigated. The current gradually decreases upon NO2 exposure and application of a positive gate bias. The current decrease originates from the trapping of electrons, yielding a shift of the threshold voltage towards the applied gate bias. The shift is observed for extremely low NO2 concentrations down to 10 ppb and can phenomenologically be described by a stretched-exponential time relaxation. NO2 detection has been demonstrated with n-type, p-type, and ambipolar semiconductors. In all cases, the threshold voltage shifts due to gate bias induced electron trapping. The description of the NO2 detection with field-effect transistors is generic for all semiconductors and can be used to improve future NO2 sensors.

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