The motivation of the investigation is critical pressure loss in cryogenic flexible hoses used for LNG transport in offshore installations. Our main goal is to estimate the friction factor for the turbulent flow in this type of pipes. For this purpose, twoequation
turbulence models (k -e and k -w) are used in the computations.
First, fully developed turbulent flow in a conventional pipe is considered. Simulations are performed to validate the chosen models, boundary conditions and computational grids. Then a new boundary condition is implemented based on the "combined" law of the wall. It enables us to model the effects of roughness (and maintain the right flow behavior for moderate Reynolds numbers). The implemented boundary condition is validated
by comparison with experimental data. Next, turbulent flow in periodically corrugated (flexible) pipes is considered. New flow phenomena (such as flow separation) caused by the corrugation are pointed out and the essence of periodically fully developed flow is explained. The friction factor for different values of relative roughness of the fabric is
estimated by performing a set of simulations. Finally, the main conclusion is presented: the friction factor in a flexible corru-Address all correspondence to this author.
gated pipe is mostly determined by the shape and size of the steel
spiral, and not by the type of the fabric which is wrapped around the spiral.
Keywords: flexible pipe, friction factor, roughness modeling, corrugated
pipe, modified law of the wall.