The motivation of the investigation is the critical pressure loss in cryogenic flexible hoses used for LNG transport in offshore installations. Our main goal is to estimate the friction factor for the turbulent flow in this type of pipes. For this purpose, two-equation turbulence models (k-epsilon and k-omega) are used in the computations. First, the fully developed turbulent flow in a conventional pipe is considered. Simulations are performed to validate the chosen models, boundary conditions, and computational grids. Then a new boundary condition is implemented based on the "combined" law of the wall. It enables us to model the effects of roughness (and maintain the right flow behavior for moderate Reynolds numbers). The implemented boundary condition is validated by comparison with experimental data. Next, the turbulent flow in periodically corrugated (flexible) pipes is considered. New flow phenomena (such as flow separation) caused by the corrugation are pointed out and the essence of periodically fully developed flow is explained. The friction factor for different values of relative roughness of the fabric is estimated by performing a set of simulations. Finally, the main conclusion is presented: The friction factor in a flexible corrugated pipe is mostly determined by the shape and size of the steel spiral, and not by the type of the fabric, which is wrapped around the spiral.
|Journal||Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering|
|Publication status||Published - 2011|