Accurate modeling of boundary conditions is of critical importance for acoustic simulations. Recently, the time-domain nodal discontinuous Galerkin (TD-DG) method has emerged as a potential wave-based method for acoustic modeling. Although the acoustic reflection behavior of various time-domain impedance boundaries has been studied extensively, the modeling of the sound transmission across a locally-reacting layer of impedance discontinuity is far less developed. This paper presents a formulation of broadband time-domain transmission boundary conditions for locally-reacting surfaces in the framework of the TD-DG method. The formulation simulates the acoustic wave behavior at each of the boundary nodes using the plane-wave theory. Through the multi-pole model representation of the transmission coefficient, various types of transmission layers can be simulated. One-dimensional numerical examples demonstrate the capability of the proposed formulation to accurately simulate the reflection and transmission characteristics of the limp wall and the porous layer, where quantitative error behavior against analytical results is presented. Furthermore, to demonstrate the applicability, two scenarios of two-dimensional acoustic environment are considered. One is the sound transmission between two rooms partitioned by a limp panel and the other is the sound propagation through a transmissive noise barrier. Comparison of the predicted results from the proposed method against the results from the frequency-domain finite element simulations further verifies the formulation.