FORMAT: A Reconfigurable Tile-Based Antenna Array System for 5G and 6G Millimeter-Wave Testbeds

Eduardo V.P. Anjos (Corresponding author), Marzieh SalarRahimi, Thomas Bressner, Parastoo Takhighani, Adrian Lahuerta-Lavieja, Amr Elsakka, Jorrit Siebenga, Vladimir Volski, Christian Fager, Dominique Schreurs, Guy A.E. Vandenbosch, Ulf Johannsen, A.B. Smolders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
139 Downloads (Pure)


This article introduces the FORMAT array, a reconfigurable millimeter-wave antenna array platform based on antenna tiles. FORMAT stands for Flexible Organization and Reconfiguration of Millimeter-wave Antenna Tiles, which is a unique hardware solution aiming to implement and demonstrate a variety of antenna array concepts, as well as different array architectures and configurations from the same basic module, providing even benchmark between different solutions and thus valuable insights into fifth-generation (5G) and beyond-5G antenna systems. The combination of a minimum-sized tile with 3D-printed frame parts enables antenna arrays of a variety of sizes, allows multiple beamforming architectures, and a range of different antenna element positioning in the array. The hardware implementation is thoroughly described, with a few different array assemblies being manufactured and measured, validating their antenna performance with over-the-air measurements. Finally, using FORMAT hardware as both base station and user equipment, a 5-m wireless communication link was set up, achieving 4.8 Gbps downlink speed with QAM64 modulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4489-4500
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2022


  • 5G mobile communication
  • 6G
  • Antenna arrays
  • Antenna measurements
  • Antennas
  • Array signal processing
  • Computer architecture
  • Hardware
  • antenna arrays
  • antenna tile
  • beamforming
  • fifth-generation (5G)
  • massive MIMO


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