The objective of this study is to construct a regime diagram for laminar flames stabilized behind flame holders with respect to the presence of a recirculation zone (RZ), trend of heat loss to the burner, and flow strain and flame curvature effects. This is achieved by varying the radius of the cylindrical flame holder and the mixture velocity between the flashback limit and the blow-off limit at a fixed equivalence ratio. It is found that for all flame holders, a RZ vortex is not present near the flashback limit. At flashback, flow strain is almost zero and the flame curvature is found to be the main contributor to flame stretch. With increasing mixture velocity, the heat loss to the flame holder decreases for smaller radii and a RZ does not appear till blow-off occurs. For flame holders with radii greater than twice the flame thickness, the heat loss to the flame holder first decreases with increasing mixture velocity without a RZ. A further increase in the mixture velocity does not result in blow-off but instead, a RZ appears behind the flame holder reversing the heat loss trend. In this scenario, flow strain is found to increase significantly and becomes the major contributor to flame stretch, although curvature effects are still present. With the RZ present, the blow-off limits are significantly extended and the stabilization mechanism is altered. The RZ vortex shields the flame base from intense pre-heating resulting from the increase in heat loss to the flame-holder while it provides support to the flame leading edge by recirculation of hot products. The results obtained from this study are used to construct a regime diagram, which offers a broader view of the whole flame stabilization process and its mechanisms.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) for their financial support under Project no. 13549.
© 2020 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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- Flame stabilization
- Heat loss
- Recirculation zone