TiO2 is a widely studied material due to its optical and photocatalytic properties and its hydrophilic nature after prolonged UV exposure. When synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) the TiO2 can be deposited with ultimate growth control with a high conformality on demanding topologies and even at room temperature when e.g. using a plasma based process. We report on the deposition of TiO2 films using remote plasma ALD with titanium (IV) isopropoxide as precursor and O2 plasma as oxidant. Stochiometric TiO2 films with carbon and hydrogen levels below the detection limit of Rutherford backscattering/elastic recoil detection (<2 at.%) have been deposited within the temperature range of 25°C to 300°C. Depending on the ALD conditions and film thickness amorphous films turn anatase for temperatures higher than 200°C as revealed by X-ray diffraction. It is demonstrated that this change in crystal phase can also be observed by spectroscopic ellipsometry revealing an increase in growth rate per cycle (from typically 0.45 Å/cycle to 0.7 Å/cycle) and change in bandgap (from 3.4 eV to 3.7 eV) when the TiO2 becomes anatase. An accompanying change in surface topology is clearly observed by atomic force microscopy. The hydrophilicity of low temperature TiO2 films is studied by contact angle measurements for adhesion purposes revealing that the amorphous films are super-hydrophilic after UV exposure.
|Title of host publication
|Proceedings of the 54th international American Vacuum Society Symposium & Exhibition (AVS 54) 14-19 October 2007, Seattle, Washington (pp. TF1). New York, NY: AVS.
|Published - 2007