Fault Detection and Classification for Photovoltaic Systems Based on Hierarchical Classification and Machine Learning Technique

Aref Eskandari, Jafar Milimonfared (Corresponding author), Mohammadreza Aghaei (Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Line-Line (LL) and Line-Ground (LG) faults may not be detected by common protection devices in PV arrays due to these faults are not detectable under high fault impedance and low mismatch level. In recent years, many efforts have been devoted to overcome these challenges using intelligent methods. However, these methods could not classify the type of faults and diagnose their severity. This paper proposes a novel and intelligent fault monitoring method to detect and classify LL and LG faults at the DC side of PV systems. For this purpose, the main features of Current-Voltage (I-V) curves under different fault events and normal conditions are extracted. The faults are categorized using the Hierarchical Classification (HC) platform. Later, the LL and LG faults are detected and classified by Machine Learning (ML) methods. The proposed method aims to reduce the amount of dataset which is required for the learning process and also obtain a higher accuracy in detecting and classifying the fault events at low mismatch levels and high fault impedance compared to other fault diagnostic methods. The experimental results verify that the proposed method precisely detects and classifies LL and LG faults on PV systems under the different conditions and severity with the accuracy of 96.66% and 91.66%, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9311866
Pages (from-to)12750-12759
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Circuit faults
  • Classification algorithms
  • Data models
  • Fault detection
  • Fault detection and classification
  • Feature extraction
  • Hierarchical classification
  • Impedance
  • Line-Line and Line-Ground faults
  • Machine learning
  • Monitoring
  • Photovoltaic monitoring
  • hierarchical classification (HC)
  • machine learning (ML)
  • line-line (LL) and line-ground faults (LG)
  • photovoltaic monitoring


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