This article offers a comprehensive overview of the underlying physics relevant to an understanding of materials processing during the various production steps in extrusion-based 3D concrete printing (3DCP). Understanding the physics governing the processes is an important step towards the purposeful design and optimization of 3DCP systems as well as their efficient and robust process control. For some processes, analytical formulas based on the relevant physics have already enabled reasonable predictions with respect to material flow behavior and buildability, especially in the case of relatively simple geometries.
The existing research in the field was systematically compiled by the authors in the framework of the activities of the RILEM Technical Committee 276 “Digital fabrication with cement-based materials”. However, further research is needed to develop reliable tools for the quantitative analysis of the entire process chain. To achieve this, experimental efforts for the characterization of material properties need to go hand in hand with comprehensive numerical simulation.
- Additive manufacturing
- Concrete technology
- Underlying physics