Experimental verification of magnetic field dose effects for the MRI-accelerator

A.J.E. Raaijmakers, B.W. Raaymakers, J.J.W. Lagendijk

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85 Citations (Scopus)


The MRI-linear accelerator system, currently being developed, is designed such that the patient is irradiated in the presence of a magnetic field. This influences the dose distribution due to the Lorentz force working on the secondary electrons. Simulations have shown that the following dose effects occur: the build-up distance is reduced, the lateral profile becomes asymmetric in the direction orthogonal to the magnetic field and at tissue-air interfaces the dose increases due to returning electrons. In this work, GafChromic film measurements were performed in the presence of a magnetic field to experimentally quantify these dose effects. Depth-dose curves were measured in a PMMA-air-PMMA phantom and the lateral profiles were measured in a homogeneous PMMA phantom with the photon beam protruding over the edges of the phantom. The measurement results confirmed the magnetic field dose effects that were predicted by simulations. This enabled us to verify Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations of these MRI-linac specific dose effects: the relative agreement for the depth-dose curves between measurements and simulations was within 2.2%/1.8 mm. The relative agreement for the lateral profiles was 2.3%/1.7 mm. Overall, the magnetic field dose effects that are expected for irradiation with the MRI-linac can be modelled using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations within measurement accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4283-91
Number of pages9
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jul 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Algorithms
  • Electromagnetic Fields
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Particle Accelerators
  • Radiation Dosage
  • Radiometry
  • Evaluation Studies
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Studies


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