Evaluation of hydroxylapatite cement composites as bone graft substitutes in a rabbit defect model

M.J. Voor, J.J.C. Arts, S. Klein, L.H.B. Walschot, N. Verdonschot, P. Buma

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


To evaluate in vivo performance of hydroxylapatite cement (HAC) as a porous bone graft substitute, HAC was mixed (1:1 volume ratio) with either porous calcium phosphate GRANULES (80% TCP, 20% HA) or defatted morsellized cancellous bone allograft (MCB) and implanted bilaterally in rabbit distal femurs. Groups with EMPTY defects and impacted MCB were used for reference. After eight weeks, one femur from each pair was examined histologically. Contralateral specimens and time-zero specimens were used for mechanical indentation tests. Histology showed that the EMPTY defects were filled with newly formed osteopenic bone after eight weeks. The MCB defects showed complete remodelling of graft into vital bone. Incorporation of the HAC/MCB composites was extensive but not completed, while minimal new bone ingrowth into the HAC/GRANULE composites was found. Indentation tests showed that both cement composites were significantly stronger than EMPTY defects, incorporated MCB and intact bone. Composites of HAC and porous biomaterials can maintain their relatively high strength over eight weeks in vivo, but their incorporation into a new bony structure is slowed by the synthetic materials. The HAC/MCB composite showed more favourable strength and incorporation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-224
Number of pages4
JournalKey Engineering Materials
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes
EventThe Annual Meeting of the International Society for Ceramics in Medicine - Porto, Portugal
Duration: 6 Nov 20039 Nov 2003


  • Bone graft
  • Bone graft sustitute
  • Cancellous
  • Hydroxylapatite cement
  • Incorporation


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