Evaluating sharpness functions for automated scanning electron microscopy

M. Rudnaya, R.M.M. Mattheij, J.M.L. Maubach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Fast and reliable autofocus techniques are an important topic for automated scanning electron microscopy. In this paper, different autofocus techniques are discussed and applied to a variety of experimental through-focus series of scanning electron microscopy images with different geometries. The procedure of quality evaluation is described, and for a variety of scanning electron microscope samples it is demonstrated that techniques based on image derivatives and Fourier transforms are in general better than statistical, intensity and histogram-based techniques. Further, it is shown that varying of an extra parameter can dramatically increase quality of an autofocus technique.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-49
JournalJournal of Microscopy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2010


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