Fine-grain graphite targets have been exposed to ITER divertor relevant plasmas in Pilot-PSI to address material migration issues in fusion devices. Optical emission spectroscopy and mass loss measurements have been employed to quantify gross chemical erosion and net erosion yields, respectively. Effects of the ion impact energy and target geometry on carbon erosion yields have been studied. It is concluded that temporal evolution of gross chemical erosion is strongly connected with changes in morphology of plasma-exposed surfaces. The net carbon erosion yield is increased when the targets are partly covered by insulating boron-nitride rings. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.