Knowledge is commonly seen as a necessary precondition for a person’s behavior. Consistent with this, most educational interventions rely on knowledge transfer. However, for the most efficient informational strategies for education, it is essential that we identify the types of knowledge that promote behavior effectively and investigate their structure. A questionnaire consisting of three environmental knowledge scales and a conservation behavior measure was sent to 5000 randomly selected Swiss adults. A completed questionnaire was returned by 55% of them (N=2736). A series of structural equation analyses indicates that the three knowledge forms exert different influences on conservation behavior: Action-related knowledge and effectiveness knowledge have a direct effect on performance. In contrast, system knowledge is more remote from behavior, exerting only a mediated influence on it by way of affecting the other two knowledge types.